Most days of most lives are “ordinary.” But, our ordinary is likely very different than the ordinary of our ancestors. Though, in some ways things are probably similar. I’m using a random number generator to decide how many years to go back in time. The intent is to see which ancestors were living, where they lived, the basics of what was going on in their lives, and what was going on in the world around them.
Going back to 1670 has proven to be much more difficult than my first post in this series when we went back to 1915. There are more ancestors and less information. When we review this date, 347-years in the past, we have to think in generalities rather than in specifics. We don’t have as many exact birth and death dates for people. A lot of the data is based on compiled records and the work of past researchers, so is less verifiable. There are no newspapers to review. History is reported by the decade, at best, when we go back so far in time. So, for this post, I’ve assembled tidbits of information that give us a glimpse into our family tree in 1670.
15 November 2017 – Wednesday
With Halloween behind us, we in 2017 are thinking ahead to Thanksgiving. We look forward to a big feast (or two) and to spending time with relatives. We did get the lefse made! It is great to celebrate our Norwegian heritage and pass the skills down through the generations. It is a lot easier for us than it was for Grandma though – more hands and more modern equipment. We are all happy to have a new baby boy in the family, but unlike his older cousin who now has years of experience, he just slept through all the lefse-making festivities.
News headlines include the following:
- Strong earthquake hits Iraq and Iran, killing more than 450.
- New accuser claims sexual assault by Roy Moore in 1970s.
- Hate crimes rose for 2nd year in a row in 2016, FBI reports.
- Ready or not, House GOP sets vote on tax overhaul.
- U.S. budget deficit up sharply in October.
- Nationalists march on Poland’s Independence day.
- Texas mass shooting church opens as memorial.
- US displays military might near Korea.
- Keenum, Vikings keep rolling by beating Redskins 38-30.
- Croft, Minnesota run over Nebraska 54-21.
15 November 1670 – Friday
We had more than 405 ancestors living in November 1670. These folks were our 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th… great-grandparents. As you go back in time, the number of ancestors you have grows quickly. You have two parents, four grandparents, eight great-grandparents, sixteen 2nd great-grandparents, and so on. By the time you get to 8th great-grandparents, you are dealing with 512 people in that generation. By the time you get to 10th great-grandparents, you are dealing with 2048.
Of course, all family trees, ours included, have situations where relatives marry relatives, so you have the same person showing up multiple times on your family tree. The example above shows what would happen if your grandparents were third cousins. You can see that your total number of unique ancestors goes down. This also shows that when you go back far enough, everyone must be related to themselves because there weren’t enough people alive for you to have all unique ancestors. Anyway, the point is that the number of unique individuals may be less than 1024 at the 9th great-grandparent level, but still, we are looking for a lot of people when we get back that far. There are still blanks to fill our our tree, but at least 405 of our ancestors were living in November 1670.
A random thought: this makes me remember the time when I was a child and my math teacher uncle entertained me (or found a way to keep me quiet) by having me see how far I could get starting with doing 1 + 1 = 2. Followed by 2 + 2 = 4. Followed by 4 + 4 = 8. And so forth. I wonder how far I got. I wonder how long I worked at it.
Where did they live?
In 1670, some of our families had already immigrated to the New World, while others remained in Europe. The following map shows where they were located. For some families, we have to make some assumptions based on where their future descendants emigrated from, but for others, there are records that place specific people in specific places in 1670 (or close to 1670 anyway).
What was happening in the world?
It has been extremely difficult to find out what was going on in the world in 1670. There don’t seem to be any major headlines from that year, but a few tidbits could be found. For example, on 7 Nov 2017, a meteorite broke the roof beam of a house in China. 1670 was the year that Puritans founded Charles Town (Charlestown) on the Atlantic cost of the Carolina colony and when Britain established the Hudson Bay Company in Canada.
More generally, the American colonies were still being settled. Boundaries were being drawn and local governments established. Of course, the colonies still were ruled by Europeans. New England was expanding due to emigration of discontented settlers from Massachusetts. The Southern Colonies were being established, with Virginia as its leader. The Middle Colonies were established by the conquests of the Dutch and Swedish, with New York and Pennsylvania being the leading colonies of the middle. There were differences in opinion on whether the colonies should come together into a strong union or, instead, stay apart. This was also a period of time when the English were expelling the French from North America and extending their boundaries westward.
Agriculture was the main industry for our New England ancestors. But, farming was tough. A man named Professor Channing was quoted, saying, “The New England farmer by constant labor and the exercise of great patience, and by personally overseeing the operations of the farm, was able to make it bring forth enough to feed his family and sometimes to have a little to spare for sale; but anything above the bare needs of existence had to be procured by other means than cultivation of the soil.” So, many New England settlers moved into manufacturing, fishing, ship building and trading.
Our ancestors in New England probably had access to education. Back in 1642, Massachusetts passed a law that required children and servants to be taught to read. In 1649, every village in Massachusetts, with fifty or more home owners, was required to have a teacher. This free-school system expanded across the New England. There was probably not much fun in school though. The Puritans were still the largest and most powerful religious group of the Northern Colonies. And they did not like gaiety and amusements. There were a lot of laws. For example, people could be fined for not going to church on Sunday or even for riding to church with unseemly haste. There were to be no public displays of affection, especially on Sundays, and work was forbidden on the Sabbath. Most towns in New England were small, compact, villages where people lived near one another.
Fitting into the spirits and spirits theme of this website, I’ll mention that there were rules governing alcohol as well. Brewing was forbidden on Sundays (of course) and in 1651, brewers were required to use barley to make their beer rather than using the less expensive maize. There were regulations about pricing too – the price of beer had to go up as malt content grew higher. The rules got more stringent in the 1670s when beverages with higher alcohol content became available. People were fined for drinking excessively. Doing so repeatedly could get someone whipped or put in the stocks. Even with the rules, access to alcohol was a priority in early America. Rum became a preferred drink. There were rum distilleries in places like Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Even after the colonists started making whiskey from corn, rum was still the preferred strong drink.
Largely based on research of other family historians, who passed the information on to me, we can identify 58 Christianson ancestors living in November 1670. The most common female names were Margit and Kari and the most common male name was Ola.
|Name||Approximate Age||Probable residence in 1670|
|Gulbrand Torson Ve Gislerud||16||Flå, Buskerud, Norway|
|Goer Olsdtr Aavestrud||10||Flå, Buskerud, Norway|
|Tor Olson Ve||58||Flå, Buskerud, Norway|
|Kari Nilsdtr Gulsvik||58||Flå, Buskerud, Norway|
|Randi Helgesdtr Frovoll||70||Norway|
|Ole Amundsen Aavestrud||51||Flå, Buskerud, Norway|
|Maren Herbrandsdtr Gulsvik||39||Flå, Buskerud, Norway|
|Herbrand Guttormson Gulsvik||76||Flå, Buskerud, Norway|
|Margit Gautesdtr Bortnes||60||Flå, Buskerud, Norway|
|Ole Aslakson Grimsgard||Norway|
|Siri Halvorsdtr Sire||40||Norway|
|Aslak Halvorson Grimsgard||60||Nes, Buskerud, Norway|
|Rangdi Knutsdtr Bratterud||50||Nes, Buskerud, Norway|
|Birgit Steinarsdtr Kinneberg||Norway|
|Halvor Ivarson Medboen||45||Flå, Buskerud, Norway|
|Arne Person Rud Hova||27||Buskerud, Norway|
|Birgit Ericksdtr Brunsvall||19||Buskerud, Norway|
|Per Halverson Devegge Rud||65||Buskerud, Norway|
|Sigri Olsdtr Voll||Buskerud, Norway|
|Erick Palson Aavestrud||65||Buskerud, Norway|
|Gjartru Amundsdtr Brunsvall||Buskerud, Norway|
|Peder Jorgenson Olsgard||15||Nes, Buskerud, Norway|
|Margit Nubsdtr Strande||5||Ål , Buskerud, Norway|
|Jorgen Pedersen Holst-Haraldset||46||Hemsedal, Buskerud, Norway|
|Maren Stensdtr Haraldset||34||Nes, Buskerud, Norway|
|Nub Knutson Kittelsviken||27||Flå, Buskerud, Norway|
|Ingeborg Gunvaldsdtr Bordalen||Buskerud, Norway|
|Levor Ostenson Kvie||0||Hallingdal, Buskerud, Norway|
|Anne Hansdtr||Hallingdal, Buskerud, Norway|
|Osten Levorson Kvie||45||Flå, Buskerud, Norway|
|Liv Andresdtr Jellum||30||Eggedal, Buskerud, Norway|
|Andres Knutson Jellum||69||Eggedal, Buskerud, Norway|
|Ingebjorg Steinardsdtr Skala||Eggedal, Buskerud, Norway|
|Hans Hanson Tolleivsrud||33||Flå, Buskerud, Norway|
|Liv Torsdtr Ve||26||Flå, Buskerud, Norway|
|Hans Knutson Tollefsrud||65||Flå, Buskerud, Norway|
|Jorand Olsdtr Ve||4||Flå, Buskerud, Norway|
|Ola Torson Ve Eidal||31||Flå, Buskerud, Norway|
|Ragnild Tolleivsdtr Froysok||30||Buskerud, Norway|
|Tolleiv Arneson Froysok||65||Flå, Buskerud, Norway|
|Asle Torset||6||Hemsedal, Hallingdal, Norway|
|Ola Arneson Hoftun||12||Torpo, Aal, Hallingdal, Buskerud|
|Margit Steingrimsdatter Hersgard||5||Norway|
|Arnie Tollievson Froysok Hoftun||40||Norway|
|Kari Torsdatter Ve||29||Flå, Buskerud, Norway|
|Ola Jakobson Markegard||Hemsedal, Buskerud, Norway|
|Guro Persdtr Devegge Rud||20||Hemsedal, Buskerud, Norway|
|Helge Larsson Aldahl||20||Voss, Evanger, Hordaland, Norway|
|Kari Botolosdtr Luren||25||Voss, Evanger, Hordaland, Norway|
|Gulleik Knutson Ovstedal||10||Norway|
|Knut Torkjelson Ovstedal||36||Norway|
|Guri Halvorsdtr Horvei||33||Norway|
|Gaute Halvorson N. Skogen-Rud||Norway|
|Jorgen Pedersen Holst-Haraldset||46||Nes, Buskerud, Norway|
Everybody lived in Norway, but the Christianson last name wasn’t around yet. Well, there may have been people with Christianson or Christiandtr in their middle names, but the last names they used were the names of the farms upon which they resided.
In 1670, Norway was united with Denmark, under Danish rule. The Lutheran church was the state religion. They were still using the Julian calendar, so the year started on March 15th.
Our Norwegian ancestors may have eaten lefse in 1670, but it wasn’t the lefse that we know and love today. The first potatoes weren’t introduced to Norway until the mid-1700s, so their lefse was not made of potatoes. Their lefse was just made with flour. And, it was not soft like ours. It was dried flat-bread. Women made lots of it and stored it on the shelf. When you wanted some, you dipped it in water before you ate it. Ours sounds much better!
We can identify 163 Estes ancestors living in 1670. John was the most common male name. Elizabeth and Mary were the most common female names.
|Name||Approximate Age||Probable residence in 1670|
|Abraham Estes||23||Sandwich, Kent, England|
|James Chisholm||13||New Kent, Virginia|
|John Girlington||36||Hornsby, Cumberland, England|
|Mary Sarah Cave||10||Virginia|
|John Meadows||12||Essex Virginia|
|David Holloway||6||Charles Parish, York, Virginia, USA|
|James Holloway||35||Charles Parish, York, Virginia, USA|
|Ann||Charles Parish, York, Virginia, USA|
|John Matthews||20||Warwick, Virginia|
|Elizabeth Tavenor||20||Warwick, Virginia|
|John Mills||10||Essex Virginia|
|Robert Mills||30||Essex Virginia|
|John Ireson||18||Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|
|Richard Ireson||68||Lynn, Essex, Massachusetts|
|William Branson||25||Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|
|Margaret Johnson||21||Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|
|John Day||5||Burlington County, New Jersey|
|Elizabeth Harvey||10||Burlington County, New Jersey|
|John Thomas Antrim||24||Burlington County, New Jersey|
|Frances Butcher||11||Biddlesden, Buckinghamshire, England|
|John Butcher||47||Biddlesden, Buckinghamshire, England|
|Anne||43||Biddlesden, Buckinghamshire, England|
|Martha Eldridge||3||Driffield, Gloucestershire, England|
|Thomas Eldridge||Cirencester, Gloucestershire, England|
|Amy||Cirencester, Gloucestershire, England|
|Samuel Vail||16||Southampton, Suffolk, New York, USA|
|Thomas Vail||42||Southampton, Suffolk, New York, USA|
|Sarah Wentworth||Southampton, Suffolk, New York, USA|
|Samuel Smith||26||Woodbridge, Middlesex, New Jersey, USA|
|Esther Dunham||11||Woodbridge, Middlesex, New Jersey, USA|
|John Smith||56||Woodbridge, Middlesex, New Jersey, USA|
|Susannah Hinckley||45||Woodbridge, Middlesex, New Jersey, USA|
|Jonathan Dunham||31||Woodbridge, Middlesex, New Jersey, USA|
|Mary Bloomfield||28||Woodbridge, Middlesex, New Jersey, USA|
|Richard Singletary||85||Haverhill, Essex, Massachusetts, USA|
|Susanna Cooke||Haverhill, Essex, Massachusetts, USA|
|John Shotwell||20||Elizabeth, Union, New Jersey|
|Elizabeth Burton||New York, USA|
|Abraham Shotwell||46||Elizabeth, Union, New Jersey|
|Edward Fitz Randolph||0||Barnstable, Barnstable, Massachusetts|
|Nathaniel Fitz Randolph||28||Barnstable, Barnstable, Massachusetts|
|Mary Holley||Barnstable, Barnstable, Massachusetts|
|Edward Fitz Randolph||63||Piscataway, Middlesex, New Jersey|
|Elizabeth Blossom||50||Piscataway, Middlesex, New Jersey|
|Rose Allen||Barnstable, Barnstable, Massachusetts|
|Willam Newland||65||Barnstable, Barnstable, Massachusetts|
|Richard Hartshorne||29||Middletown, Monmouth, New Jersey|
|Margaret Carr||16||Middletown, Monmouth, New Jersey|
|Robert Carr||56||Monmouth, New Jersey|
|John Cowperthwait||Flushing, Queens, New York|
|Sarah Adams||2||Flushing, Queens, New York|
|Hugh Cowperthwait||22||Flushing, Queens, New York|
|Elizabeth||Flushing, Queens, New York|
|John Adams||40||Flushing, Queens, New York|
|Elizabeth||Flushing, Queens, New York|
|Ellen Newton||72||Plymouth County, Massachusetts, USA|
|John Jackson||23||Hempstead, Nassau, New York (Long Island)|
|Elizabeth Seaman||17||Hempstead, Nassau, New York (Long Island)|
|Robert Jackson||50||Hempstead, Nassau, New York (Long Island)|
|Washburne||46||Hempstead, Nassau, New York (Long Island)|
|John Seaman||Hempstead, Nassau, New York (Long Island)|
|William Hallett||22||Astoria, Queens, New York, USA (Hallet’s Cove)|
|Sarah Woolsey||20||Astoria, Queens, New York, USA (Hallet’s Cove)|
|William Hallett||54||Astoria, Queens, New York, USA (Hallet’s Cove)|
|Elizabeth Fones||60||Astoria, Queens, New York, USA (Hallet’s Cove)|
|George Woolsey||60||Jamaica, Queens, New York, USA|
|Rebecca Cornell||49||Jamaica, Queens, New York, USA|
|Rebecca Briggs||70||Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island, USA|
|Isaac Doty||21||Oyster Bay, Nassau, New York (Long Island)|
|Elizabeth England||17||Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island|
|Faith Clarke||52||Plymouth, Plymouth, Massachusetts|
|John Phillips||67||Plymouth, Plymouth, Massachusetts|
|Elizabeth||57||Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island, USA|
|Hugh Parsons||57||Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island, USA|
|Isaac Johnson||27||Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts|
|Mary Harris||19||Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts|
|Isaac Johnson||55||Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts|
|Elizabeth Porter||60||Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts|
|Grace Negus||67||Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts|
|Daniel Harris||44||Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut|
|Mary Weld||43||Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut|
|Samuel Partridge||25||Hatfield, Hampshire, Massachusetts|
|Mehitable Crow||18||Hatfield, Hampshire, Massachusetts|
|Mary Smith||45||Hartford, Hartford, Connecticut|
|John Crow||64||Hartford, Hartford, Connecticut|
|William Goodwin||79||Farmington, Hartford, Connecticut|
|Susanna||Farmington, Hartford, Connecticut|
|Jonathan Gilbert||22||Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut|
|Dorothy Stow||11||Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut|
|Jonathan Gilbert||51||Hartford, Hartford, Connecticut|
|Mary Welles||44||Hartford, Hartford, Connecticut|
|John White||Hartford, Hartford, Connecticut|
|Samuel Stow||47||Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut|
|Hope Fletcher||45||Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut|
|Daniel Harris||17||Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut|
|Abigail Barnes||14||Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut|
|Thomas Miller||61||Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut|
|Sarah Nettleton||26||Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut|
|Samuel Bow||11||Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut|
|Mary Turner||5||Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut|
|Alexander Bow||Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut|
|Edward Turner||37||Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut|
|Mary Sanford||34||Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut|
|Edward Morris||12||Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts|
|Elizabeth Bowen||9||Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts|
|Edward Morris||40||Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts|
|Grace Bett||Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts|
|Henry Bowen||37||Woodstock, Windham, Connecticu|
|Elizabeth Johnson||33||Woodstock, Windham, Connecticu|
|Jonathan Peake||7||Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts|
|Hannah Leavens||4||Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts|
|Jonathan Peake||33||Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts|
|Sarah French||32||Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts|
|Dorcas French||Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts|
|William French||67||Billerica, Middlesex, Massachusetts|
|Mary Lathrop||30||Billerica, Middlesex, Massachusetts|
|Thomas Brownell||20||Newport County, Rhode Island|
|Mary Pearce||16||Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island,|
|Richard Pearce||55||Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island,|
|Susannah Wright||43||Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island,|
|Jonathan Thurston||11||Newport, Newport, Rhode Island,|
|Edward Thurston||53||Newport, Newport, Rhode Island,|
|Elizabeth Mott||41||Newport, Newport, Rhode Island,|
|John Bailey||17||Newport County, Rhode Island|
|Sutton||5||Newport County, Rhode Island|
|Grace Parsons||30||Rhode Island|
|Elizabeth Cleaves||Portland, Cumberland, Maine|
|John Borden||30||Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island,|
|Mary Earle||15||Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island,|
|Richard Borden||75||Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island,|
|Joan Fowle||66||Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island,|
|William Earle||Dartmouth, Bristol, Massachusetts|
|Ralph Earle||64||Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island,|
|Joan Savage||74||Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island,|
|Job Briggs||22||Newport County, Rhode Island|
|Eleanor||18||Newport County, Rhode Island|
|John Briggs Sr||61||Newport County, Rhode Island|
|Sarah Cornell||Newport County, Rhode Island|
Looking at the map, it appears that the Estes family had already conquered most of the Eastern seaboard in the American Colonies. Family members could be found as far south as Virginia and as far north as Maine.
There were also ancestors who still lived in Europe. Some were living in England and Ireland. Others were in what is now Germany. We can’t yet trace the Meyer and Stadler ancestors back any farther than the early 1800s, but their forebears were most likely living in Germany, possibly in the general areas that they emigrated from such as Hettingen, Neckar-Odenwald-Kreis, Baden-Württemberg, Germany (“near Trier, in the Renish province”); Obrigheim, Neckar-Odenwald-Kreis, Baden-Württemberg, Germany; and Mörtelstein, Neckar-Odenwald-Kreis, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
We had quite a few Estes ancestors living in Rhode Island in 1670. Although Massachusetts had originally been settled almost entirely by Puritans, later, only about a fifth of the people belonged to the Puritan church. But, since you could only vote or hold an office if you belonged to that church, most of the people in Massachusetts weren’t able to participate in the political life of the colony. A man named Roger Williams and others, led groups of discontented families southward into Rhode Island. In 1663, just seven years before the year we are studying, Rhode Island was given a liberal charter by Charles II, King of England. This let Rhode Island legally be established as a colony.
Our ancestor, Rebecca Briggs Cornell was a 70-years old widow, living in Portsmouth, Rhode Island with her son and his family. Things were probably not pleasant for her. She was born in England and had immigrated to Massachusetts with her husband when she was a young adult. Her husband prospered in the new world and amassed considerable property in New Amsterdam (New York) and in Rhode Island. When the Quaker movement hit the colonies, Rebecca became a follower. In 1670, she was living in Portsmouth with her son Thomas and his second wife. Times were challenging. There were fears that an attack on settlers by Native Americans was imminent. There were also fears that Rhode Island would be drawn into the war that England had declared on the Dutch. But the real danger to Rebecca was right in her own home. Rebecca and her son, Thomas had a contentious relationship. Thomas’s wife and Rebecca didn’t get along well either. This all came to a tragic conclusion in Feb 1672/73 (a couple years after the year we are studying) with Rebecca’s murder.¹
Maine was governed by Massachusetts in 1670. Our ancestor, Elizabeth Cleaves was living there and perhaps still mourning her parents, Joan Price and George Cleeve, who had both died a few years earlier. Her dad had been the the founder of Portland, Maine. But, in 1670, she was a child, still several years away from marrying John Graves, so we wonder who was taking care of her.
Virginia was the leader of the Southern Colonies, similar to how Massachusetts was the leader of New England. Agriculture was the primary industry, with tobacco being the most valuable crop. Large quantities of tobacco were shipped back to England and then distributed to Germany, Sweden, and other northern European countries. Labor to grow the demanding tobacco and rice crops, came largely through slavery, petty criminals from English jails, or indentured servants. People in Virginia generally lived on large plantations along the coast and along rivers, or on small farms in the interior. They were scattered and it was hard for people to get together very often. Each individual had to attend his own affairs without assistance from others. This applied to many things, including education. In 1671, Governor William Berkeley wrote that he, “thanked God there were no free schools in Virginia, and he hoped there would not be for a hundred years.” Education was the responsibility of the parents, not a duty of the state.
Religion didn’t control things in the south like it did in the north. In Virginia, you didn’t have to belong to a certain church in order to vote or hold office.
The Middle Colonies: New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania
Estes ancestors lived in New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Those colonies, with the addition of Delaware, made up what was called the Middle Colonies. These places were originally settled by the Dutch and the Swedes, though, the Dutch had since absorbed the Swedes. Then, in 1664, England had taken New Netherland from the Dutch. Taking over these colonies, gave the British some huge benefits: it connected New England to the Southern Colonies, gave them more harbors on the Atlantic coast, opened the fur trade to the west, and, because of the good relationships they developed with the Iroquois, stopped the French from moving south of the St. Lawrence River.
The Quaker movement was started in England in the 1600s by a man named George Fox. The Quakers had some wild ideas. Or, at least that is what organized religion of the day thought. The Quakers believed that God exists in every person. They didn’t have official pastors, so didn’t agree that taxes should go for paying one. They also thought that, spiritually, men and women were equal. Equality for women? – Blasphemy! The first Quaker missionaries came to the New World in the mid-1650s. They were not well received by the ruling powers in England or the Colonies. Massachusetts, for example, persecuted Quakers. Richard Hartshorne, one of our ancestors, is found in the Quaker Meeting minutes in New Jersey. He must have been a follower, as it seems that THE George Fox even stayed at Richard’s house.
Every one of our Krueger ancestors probably lived in what is now Germany or Poland in November 1870. But, the place wasn’t called Germany and it wasn’t called Poland then. Oh, and we don’t know any of the names of these ancestors.
In 1670, the area where our Krueger ancestors likely lived was not stable. Some of them probably lived in, what was then called, Brandenburg. Prussia and Brandenburg had recently joined forces and Prussia was expanding. Eventually Prussia took over, but that was long after 1670.² In 1674 and 1675, just a few years into the future for our 1670 ancestors, there was a Swedish invasion of Brandenburg. Who knew?
Most of the ancestors considered themselves from Pomerania once they got to Wisconsin (almost two centuries after 1670). The Encyclopedia Britannica gives us some insight to the history of Pomerania. It tells us that western and central Pomerania (including Stettin which is a familiar name to our ancestors) was ruled by Polish dukes until the 17th century. Then, in 1637, the area was acquired by Brandenburg when the last Polish duke died. Then in 1648, western Pomerania was handed over to Sweden. Hey, that could explain the Scandinavian DNA showing up in our guy who should have had an ethnicity estimate of 100% German.
Thus far, the Krueger family and all the assorted lines (think Aschbrenner, Fehlhaber, etc.) can only be traced back as far as the early 1800s. We can make some assumptions that, 130-years earlier, most of the ancestors were living in places like Cardemin, Stettin, Pommern, Germany; Lebbin, Kreis Greifenberg, Pommern, Preussen, Germany, Plathe (Piepenburg, Heidebreck), Pommern, Preußen, Gross Justin, Pommerania; Henchin Felde, Hamburg, Germany; Schleswig-Holstein, Germany; Tutzluf, Germany, Hansfelde, Posen, Prussia; Dobberphul, Pommern, Prussia; and Prossekel, Kreis Filehne, Posen, Prussia. But, we would just be making an educated guess.
We know we had at least 184 Phillips ancestors living in November 1670. The most common male names were John and Johann. Anna, Mary, and Elizabeth were the most popular female names.
A disclaimer needs to be made that our 1670 German ancestors were found by another family historian who did research at the family history libraries in Salt Lake City and beyond. She transcribed German parish records and put together a tree. But, I have not had access to those records and have not personally verified the research. So, the “German” names in this list may be accurate, but are not considered 100% proven.
|Name||Approximate Age||Probable residence in 1670|
|Joshua Holmes||35||Stonington, New London, Connecticut|
|Abigail Ingraham||Stonington, New London, Connecticut|
|Robert Holmes||Stonington, New London, Connecticut|
|Samuel Chesebrough||43||Stonington, New London, Connecticut|
|Samuel Frink||2||Stonington, New London, Connecticut|
|Ephraim Miner||28||Stonington, New London, Connecticut|
|Hannah Avery||26||Stonington, New London, Connecticut|
|Thomas Miner||62||Stonington, New London, Connecticut|
|Grace Palmer||62||Stonington, New London, Connecticut|
|James Avery||50||Stonington, New London, Connecticut|
|Joanna Greenslade||48||New London County, Connecticut|
|Isaac Wheeler||24||Stonington, New London, Connecticut|
|Martha Park||24||Stonington, New London, Connecticut|
|Thomas Wheeler||68||Stonington, New London, Connecticut|
|Mary||Stonington, New London, Connecticut|
|Thomas Parke Sr||54||Preston City, New London, Connecticut|
|Dorothy Thompson||46||Preston City, New London, Connecticut|
|Jeremiah Shepard||22||Harvard College,Cambridge, Middlesex, Massachusetts|
|John Baldwin||35||New London, New London, Connecticut|
|Rebecca Palmer||23||Stonington, New London, Connecticut|
|Ebenezer Billings||9||New London County, Connecticut|
|Anna Comstock||9||Norwich, New London, Connecticut|
|Thomas Bennett||28||Fairfield, Fairfield, Connecticut|
|Elizabeth Thompson||26||Fairfield, Fairfield, Connecticut|
|Abraham Adams||20||Fairfield, Fairfield, Connecticut|
|Edward Adams||51||Fairfield, Fairfield, Connecticut|
|Mary||Fairfield, Fairfield, Connecticut|
|Samuel Hickock||2||Farmington, Hartford, Connecticut|
|Elizabeth Plumb||1||Milford, New Haven, Connecticut|
|Samuel Hickock||27||Farmington, Hartford, Connecticut|
|Hannah Upson||22||Farmington, Hartford, Connecticut|
|John Plumbe||24||Milford, New Haven, Connecticut|
|Elizabeth Norton||25||Milford, New Haven, Connecticut|
|Mary Baldwin||44||Milford, New Haven, Connecticut|
|Elizabeth Purcas||County Essex, England|
|John Norton||48||Farmington, Hartford, Connecticut|
|Elizabeth Clark||Farmington, Hartford, Connecticut|
|Jonathan Rockwell||5||Stamford, Fairfield, Connecticut|
|John Rockwell Jr.||Stamford, Fairfield, Connecticut|
|John Rockwell||Rye, Westchester, Connecticut|
|Elizabeth Weed||23||Rye, Westchester, Connecticut|
|Jonas Weed||60||Stamford, Fairfield, Connecticut|
|Mary||Stamford, Fairfield, Connecticut|
|Samuel Camfield||25||New Haven, New Haven, Connecticut|
|Elizabeth Merwin||22||New Haven, New Haven, Connecticut|
|Matthew Camfield||66||Newark, Essex, New Jersey|
|Sarah Treat||50||Newark, Essex, New Jersey|
|Miles Merwin||47||Charlestown, Suffolk, Massachusetts|
|John Lovering||7||Dover, Strafford, New Hampshire|
|Hannah Kilham||6||Wenham, Essex, Massachusetts|
|Hester||47||Dover, Strafford, New Hampshire|
|Daniel Kilham||50||Wenham, Essex, Massachusetts|
|Mary Safford||40||Wenham, Essex, Massachusetts|
|Elizabeth||Ipswich, Essex, Massachusetts|
|Nicholas Smith||9||Exeter, Rockingham, New Hampshire|
|Mary Gordon||2||Exeter, Rockingham, New Hampshire|
|Nicholas Smith||41||Exeter, Rockingham, New Hampshire|
|Mary Satchell||Exeter, Rockingham, New Hampshire|
|Alexander Gordon||35||Exeter, Rockingham, New Hampshire|
|Mary Listen||31||Exeter, Rockingham, New Hampshire|
|Nicholas Listen||Exeter, Rockingham, New Hampshire|
|Alice||Exeter, Rockingham, New Hampshire|
|Benjamin Hall||2||Rehoboth, Bristol, Massachusetts|
|Sarah Fisher||2||Wrentham, Norfolk, Massachusetts|
|Edward Hall||Rehoboth, Bristol, Massachusetts|
|Cornelius Fisher||38||Wrentham, Norfolk, Massachusetts|
|Sarah Everett||26||Wrentham, Norfolk, Massachusetts|
|Anthony Fisher||79||Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts|
|Richard Everett||Dedham, Norfolk, Massachusetts|
|Mary Winch||51||Dedham, Norfolk, Massachusetts|
|Eliezer Fisher||7||Wrentham, Norfolk, Massachusetts|
|Hannah Leonard||Wrentham, Norfolk, Massachusetts|
|Sarah Whitmore||12||Charlestown, Suffolk, Massachusetts|
|Samuel Frost||32||Billerica, Middlesex, Massachusetts|
|Edmund Frost||77||Cambridge, Middlesex, Massachusetts|
|Elizabeth Miller||21||Billerica, Middlesex, Massachusetts|
|Joseph Estabrook||1||Concord, Middlesex, Massachusetts|
|Hannah Leavitt||6||Hingham, Plymouth, Massachusetts|
|Joseph Estabrook||30||Concord, Middlesex, Massachusetts|
|Mary Mason||30||Concord, Middlesex, Massachusetts|
|Hugh Mason||65||Watertown, Middlesex, Massachusetts|
|Hester Wells||59||Watertown, Middlesex, Massachusetts|
|John Leavitt||62||Hingham, Plymouth, Massachusetts|
|Sarah Gilman||48||Hingham, Plymouth, Massachusetts|
|John Bacon||46||Dedham, Norfolk, Massachusetts|
|Rebecca Hall||38||Dedham, Norfolk, Massachusetts|
|Francis Hall||62||Stratford, Fairfield, Connecticut|
|John Loker||20||Sudbury, Middlesex, Massachusetts|
|Sarah Rice||15||Sudbury, Middlesex, Massachusetts|
|Mary Draper||Sudbury, Middlesex, Massachusetts|
|Matthew Rice||40||Sudbury, Middlesex, Massachusetts|
|Martha Lamson||37||Sudbury, Middlesex, Massachusetts|
|Thomas Sawin||13||Middlesex, Massachusetts|
|Deborah Rice||11||Sudbury, Middlesex, Massachusetts|
|John Sawin||45||Middlesex, Massachusetts|
|Abigail Munnings||43||Middlesex, Massachusetts|
|George Lyon||8||Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts|
|Thankful Badcock||2||Milton, Norfolk, Massachusetts|
|George Lyon||Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts|
|Hannah Tolman||28||Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts|
|Thomas Tolman Senior||62||Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts|
|Sarah||58||Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts|
|Robert Badcock||Milton, Norfolk, Massachusetts|
|Joanna||41||Milton, Norfolk, Massachusetts|
|John Russell||3||Hatfield, Hampshire, Massachusetts|
|Martha Graves||3||Wethersfield, Hartford, Connecticut|
|Philip Russell||42||Hatfield, Hampshire, Massachusetts|
|Elizabeth Terry||28||Hatfield, Hampshire, Massachusetts|
|John Russell||73||Hadley, Hampshire, Massachusetts|
|Elizabeth||Hadley, Hampshire, Massachusetts|
|Samuel Wolcott||14||Windsor, Hartford, Connecticut|
|Henry Wolcott||60||Windsor, Hartford, Connecticut|
|Sarah Newberry||49||Windsor, Hartford, Connecticut|
|Edward Collins||67||Charlestown, Suffolk, Massachusetts|
|Martha||61||Charlestown, Suffolk, Massachusetts|
|Johannas Stolp||4||Emmerichenhain, Germany|
|Christoffel Stalp||31||Emmerichenhain, Germany|
|Anna Catharina Schäfer||30||Emmerichenhain, Germany|
|Christianus Jung||20||Zehnhausen bei Rennerod, Germany|
|Anna Maria Diel||16||Zehnhausen bei Rennerod, Germany|
|Sebastiani Jung||55||Zehnhausen bei Rennerod, Germany|
|Kiniundta Stalp||40||Zehnhausen bei Rennerod, Germany|
|Johannes Diel||60||Zehnhausen bei Rennerod, Germany|
|Anna||50||Zehnhausen bei Rennerod, Germany|
|Sebastianus Spornhauer||14||Salzburg, Hessen-Nassau, Prussia|
|Anna Elisabetha Kopfer||10||Oberroßbach, Germany|
|Gerlach Kopfer||35||Oberroßbach, Germany|
|Johann Christ Thiel||0||Rehe, Germany|
|Anna Gertruda Greb||0||Homberg, Germany|
|Christian Diel||30||Rehe, Germany|
|Anna Catharina Goebel||25||Rehe, Germany|
|Johannes Thiel||55||Rehe, Germany|
|Sophia Feiga||50||Rehe, Germany|
|Christian Goebel||58||Rehe, Germany|
|An Els||50||Rehe, Germany|
|Theis Greb||27||Homberg, Germany|
|Anna Elisabetha Sahm||20||Homberg, Germany|
|Johann Chrstopher Saam||65||Homberg, Germany|
|Johann Wilhelm Goebel||15||Rehe, Germany|
|Maria Elisabeth Thomas||10||Rehe, Germany|
|Clas Thomas||50||Rehe, Germany|
|Anna Catharina||25||Rehe, Germany|
|Johannes Kuntz||18||Zehnhausen bei Rennerod, Germany|
|Anna Maria Jung||9||Rehe, Germany|
|Johannes Jung||45||Rehe, Germany|
|Peter Thomas||5||Möhrendorf, Germany|
|Johann Jost Lautz Thomas||40||Germany|
|Hans Michel Hartmann||20||Rehe, Germany|
|Anna Catharina||20||Rehe, Germany|
|Best Jung||24||Zehnhausen bei Rennerod, Germany|
|Kiniundta||20||Zehnhausen bei Rennerod, Germany|
|Johann Georg Stahl||21||Emmerichenhain, Germany|
|Anna Elisabeth Müller||17||Emmerichenhain, Germany|
|Johann Wilhelm Stahl||50||Emmerichenhain, Germany|
|Maria Elisabetha Brecher||50||Emmerichenhain, Germany|
|Jacob Müller||42||Emmerichenhain, Germany|
|Catharina Türk||45||Emmerichenhain, Germany|
|Johann Thonges Stahl||15||Emmerichenhain, Germany|
|Ann Els||0||Emmerichenhain, Germany|
|Johannes Haas||20||Emmerichenhain, Germany|
|Anna Maria Saam||16||Emmerichenhain, Germany|
|Johann Christopher Saam||65||Germany|
|Henrich Müller||13||Emmerichenhain, Germany|
|Johann Weigand Claus||40||Germany|
|Hermann Jung||10||Driedorf, Germany|
|Rebecca Short||60||Stonington, New London, Connecticut|
Connecticut, where many of our Phillips and Estes ancestors lived, had been given its charter from King Charles II in 1662. Settlement in Connecticut wasn’t about religion or politics like it had been for Rhode Island. It was about wanting more land. Way back in 1636, the pastor of the church of Newtown, Massachusetts led his congregation to Hartford, on the Connecticut River, to form a new settlement. Other emigrants quickly followed and by the end of 1636, there were nearly a thousand English inhabitants in the Connecticut River valley.
Many of the Phillips ancestors who lived in the colonies in November 1670 were prominent in their communities. There was even a note about Francis Hall in the Fairfield County records.
In 1670, New Hampshire was still controlled by Massachusetts. It wasn’t until 1679, seven years after the year we are studying, that King Charles II separated New Hampshire from Massachusetts and issued a charter for the royal Province of New Hampshire.
But, our ancestors were there already. Nicholas Listen, for example, lived at Exeter and was tasked with being a member of a committee to lay out town boundaries between Exeter and neighboring towns. The History of the town of Exeter, New Hampshire explained how difficult it was to get the job done.
Writing this, I’ve been able to visit some ancestors who haven’t had attention in many years. It was really hard to not stop and do research on each and every one of them, because I suspect I would have found interesting things and found corrections to make to the family tree. But, had I let myself get distracted, this wouldn’t be posted for years. I ran out of time as it is. This has been a challenging exercise, but it has given me greater perspective into our families and the world in 1670. I’ve learned quite a few things. Hopefully, you will find the random tidbits of information that I shared here interesting too. (Next time we won’t be traveling quite so far back in time…)
Notes and Selected Sources:
¹ Elaine Forman Crane, Killed strangely: the death of Rebecca Cornell (New York: Cornell University Press, 2002)
² Two YouTube videos are available to visually show the changing borders. See Brandenburg and Prussia (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ScqfgwAZhGc) and History of Prussia (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=az-d0cWrbJM).
“1661 to 1670,” Macrohistory and World Timeline, Web, 9 Nov 2017, http://www.fsmitha.com/time/ce17-7.htm.
Ancestry.com, U.S., Quaker Meeting Records, 1681-1935 (Provo, UT, USA, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2014), Ancestry.com, Swarthmore College; Swarthmore, Pennsylvania; Records of Marriages, 1674-1853, Births 1641-1869, Deaths, 1666-1876; Collection: Quaker Meeting Records; Call Number: MR Ph:585. Record for Richard Hartshorne.
Charles Henry Bell, History of the town of Exeter, New Hampshire, (Exeter, NH, 1888), pp. 118-9. Archive.Org, Web, 12 Nov 2017, https://archive.org/details/historyoftownofe00bell.
“Combined: 1500 to 1700,” History of the World, Web, 9 Nov 2017, http://www.lukemastin.com/history/by_date_4.html.
Eugene C. Barker, Walter P. Webb, and William E. Dodd, The Growth of a Nation (Evanston, Illinois: Row, Peterson and Company, 1937)
“History of Norway,” History World, Web, 2 Nov 2017, http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ac73.
“History of Quakerism,” History, Web, 12 Nov 2017, http://www.history.com/topics/history-of-quakerism.
James Hammond Trumbull, The public records of the colony of Connecticut from 1636-1776 (Hartford: Press of the Case : Lockwood & Brainard Company, 1850) Archive Org, Web, 2017, https://archive.org/details/publicrecords02conn, p. 148.
Jayaram V, “Your Ancestors For 50 Generations,” Hinduwebsite.com, Web, 2 Nov 2017, http://www.hinduwebsite.com/general/geneologycalc.asp.
Ken Polsson, “1670,” Chronology of World History, 2007-2017, Web, 9 Nov 2017, http://worldtimeline.info/wor1670.htm.
“Lefse History,” Lefse Time, Web, 12 Nov 2017, https://www.lefsetime.com/lefse-history/.
“Norway Timeline,” Family Search, Web, 2 Nov 2017, https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/Norway_Timeline.
“Pomerania,” Encyclopedia Britannica, Web, 12 Nov 2017, https://www.britannica.com/place/Pomerania.
“Right on Lefse,” My Little Norway, Web, 12 Nov 2017, http://mylittlenorway.com/2009/07/right-on-lefse/.
Rod Phillips, Alcohol: A History, (Chapel Hill: UNC Press Books, 2014), Google Books (https://books.google.com/books?id=r1g7BAAAQBAJ : accessed 9 Nov 2017)
“The Middle Colonies,” U.S. History, Web, 12 Nov 2017, http://www.ushistory.org/us/4b.asp.