Going back 347 years to 15 November 1670

Most days of most lives are “ordinary.” But, our ordinary is likely very different than the ordinary of our ancestors. Though, in some ways things are probably similar. I’m using a random number generator to decide how many years to go back in time.  The intent is to see which ancestors were living, where they lived, the basics of what was going on in their lives, and what was going on in the world around them.


Going back to 1670 has proven to be much more difficult than my first post in this series when we went back to 1915. There are more ancestors and less information. When we review this date, 347-years in the past, we have to think in generalities rather than in specifics. We don’t have as many exact birth and death dates for people. A lot of the data is based on compiled records and the work of past researchers, so is less verifiable. There are no newspapers to review. History is reported by the decade, at best, when we go back so far in time. So, for this post, I’ve assembled tidbits of information that give us a glimpse into our family tree in 1670.

15 November 2017 – Wednesday

With Halloween behind us, we in 2017 are thinking ahead to Thanksgiving. We look forward to a big feast (or two) and to spending time with relatives. We did get the lefse made! It is great to celebrate our Norwegian heritage and pass the skills down through the generations. It is a lot easier for us than it was for Grandma though – more hands and more modern equipment. We are all happy to have a new baby boy in the family, but unlike his older cousin who now has years of experience, he just slept through all the lefse-making festivities.

Six years of lefse making experience.

News headlines include the following:

  • Strong earthquake hits Iraq and Iran, killing more than 450.
  • New accuser claims sexual assault by Roy Moore in 1970s.
  • Hate crimes rose for 2nd year in a row in 2016, FBI reports.
  • Ready or not, House GOP sets vote on tax overhaul.
  • U.S. budget deficit up sharply in October.
  • Nationalists march on Poland’s Independence day.
  • Texas mass shooting church opens as memorial.
  • US displays military might near Korea.
  • Keenum, Vikings keep rolling by beating Redskins 38-30.
  • Croft, Minnesota run over Nebraska 54-21.

15 November 1670 – Friday

We had more than 405 ancestors living in November 1670. These folks were our 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th… great-grandparents. As you go back in time, the number of ancestors you have grows quickly. You have two parents, four grandparents, eight great-grandparents, sixteen 2nd great-grandparents, and so on. By the time you get to 8th great-grandparents, you are dealing with 512 people in that generation. By the time you get to 10th great-grandparents, you are dealing with 2048.

Chart showing the number of ancestors per generation, the effect marrying a third cousin has on the number of ancestors for subsequent generations, and estimated world populations.

Of course, all family trees, ours included, have situations where relatives marry relatives, so you have the same person showing up multiple times on your family tree. The example above shows what would happen if your grandparents were third cousins. You can see that your total number of unique ancestors goes down. This also shows that when you go back far enough, everyone must be related to themselves because there weren’t enough people alive for you to have all unique ancestors. Anyway, the point is that the number of unique individuals may be less than 1024 at the 9th great-grandparent level, but still, we are looking for a lot of people when we get back that far. There are still blanks to fill our our tree, but at least 405 of our ancestors were living in November 1670.

A random thought: this makes me remember the time when I was a child and my math teacher uncle entertained me (or found a way to keep me quiet) by having me see how far I could get starting with doing 1 + 1 = 2. Followed by 2 + 2 = 4. Followed by 4 + 4 = 8. And so forth. I wonder how far I got. I wonder how long I worked at it.

Where did they live?

In 1670, some of our families had already immigrated to the New World, while others remained in Europe. The following map shows where they were located. For some families, we have to make some assumptions based on where their future descendants emigrated from, but for others, there are records that place specific people in specific places in 1670 (or close to 1670 anyway).

Our ancestors were spread across Europe in 1670. Christianson ancestors could be found in Norway (red markers). Krueger ancestors could be found in Prussia (blue markers). Estes (yellow markers) and Phillips (green markers) ancestors were living across what is now Germany and what is now the United Kingdom.

By 1670, many of our Estes (yellow markers) and Phillips (green markers) ancestors had immigrated to the American Colonies.

What was happening in the world?

It has been extremely difficult to find out what was going on in the world in 1670. There don’t seem to be any major headlines from that year, but a few tidbits could be found. For example, on 7 Nov 2017, a meteorite broke the roof beam of a house in China. 1670 was the year that Puritans founded Charles Town (Charlestown) on the Atlantic cost of the Carolina colony and when Britain established the Hudson Bay Company in Canada.

More generally, the American colonies were still being settled. Boundaries were being drawn and local governments established. Of course, the colonies still were ruled by Europeans. New England was expanding due to emigration of discontented settlers from Massachusetts. The Southern Colonies were being established, with Virginia as its leader. The Middle Colonies were established by the conquests of the Dutch and Swedish, with New York and Pennsylvania being the leading colonies of the middle. There were differences in opinion on whether the colonies should come together into a strong union or, instead, stay apart. This was also a period of time when the English were expelling the French from North America and extending their boundaries westward.

New England

1650 map, The New England Settlements and Neighboring Dutch Settlements (The Growth of a Nation, p. 105)

Agriculture was the main industry for our New England ancestors. But, farming was tough. A man named Professor Channing was quoted, saying, “The New England farmer by constant labor and the exercise of great patience, and by personally overseeing the operations of the farm, was able to make it bring forth enough to feed his family and sometimes to have a little to spare for sale; but anything above the bare needs of existence had to be procured by other means than cultivation of the soil.” So, many New England settlers moved into manufacturing, fishing, ship building and trading.

Our ancestors in New England probably had access to education. Back in 1642, Massachusetts passed a law that required children and servants to be taught to read. In 1649, every village in Massachusetts, with fifty or more home owners, was required to have a teacher. This free-school system expanded across the New England. There was probably not much fun in school though. The Puritans were still the largest and most powerful religious group of the Northern Colonies. And they did not like gaiety and amusements. There were a lot of laws. For example, people could be fined for not going to church on Sunday or even for riding to church with unseemly haste. There were to be no public displays of affection, especially on Sundays, and work was forbidden on the Sabbath. Most towns in New England were small, compact, villages where people lived near one another.

Fitting into the spirits and spirits theme of this website, I’ll mention that there were rules governing alcohol as well. Brewing was forbidden on Sundays (of course) and in 1651, brewers were required to use barley to make their beer rather than using the less expensive maize. There were regulations about pricing too – the price of beer had to go up as malt content grew higher. The rules got more stringent in the 1670s when beverages with higher alcohol content became available. People were fined for drinking excessively. Doing so repeatedly could get someone whipped or put in the stocks. Even with the rules, access to alcohol was a priority in early America. Rum became a preferred drink. There were rum distilleries in places like Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Even after the colonists started making whiskey from corn, rum was still the preferred strong drink.



Largely based on research of other family historians, who passed the information on to me, we can identify 58 Christianson ancestors living in November 1670. The most common female names were Margit and Kari and the most common male name was Ola.

Name Approximate Age Probable residence in 1670
Gulbrand Torson Ve Gislerud 16 Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Goer Olsdtr Aavestrud 10 Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Tor Olson Ve 58 Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Kari Nilsdtr Gulsvik 58 Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Randi Helgesdtr Frovoll 70 Norway
Ole Amundsen Aavestrud 51 Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Maren Herbrandsdtr Gulsvik 39 Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Herbrand Guttormson Gulsvik 76 Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Margit Gautesdtr Bortnes 60 Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Ole Aslakson Grimsgard Norway
Siri Halvorsdtr Sire 40 Norway
Aslak Halvorson Grimsgard 60 Nes, Buskerud, Norway
Rangdi Knutsdtr Bratterud 50 Nes, Buskerud, Norway
Birgit Steinarsdtr Kinneberg Norway
Halvor Ivarson Medboen 45 Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Arne Person Rud Hova 27 Buskerud, Norway
Birgit Ericksdtr Brunsvall 19 Buskerud, Norway
Per Halverson Devegge Rud 65 Buskerud, Norway
Sigri Olsdtr Voll Buskerud, Norway
Erick Palson Aavestrud 65 Buskerud, Norway
Gjartru Amundsdtr Brunsvall Buskerud, Norway
Peder Jorgenson Olsgard 15 Nes, Buskerud, Norway
Margit Nubsdtr Strande 5 Ål , Buskerud, Norway
Jorgen Pedersen Holst-Haraldset 46 Hemsedal, Buskerud, Norway
Maren Stensdtr Haraldset 34 Nes, Buskerud, Norway
Nub Knutson Kittelsviken 27 Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Ingeborg Gunvaldsdtr Bordalen Buskerud, Norway
Levor Ostenson Kvie 0 Hallingdal, Buskerud, Norway
Anne Hansdtr Hallingdal, Buskerud, Norway
Osten Levorson Kvie 45 Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Liv Andresdtr Jellum 30 Eggedal, Buskerud, Norway
Andres Knutson Jellum 69 Eggedal, Buskerud, Norway
Ingebjorg Steinardsdtr Skala Eggedal, Buskerud, Norway
Hans Hanson Tolleivsrud 33 Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Liv Torsdtr Ve 26 Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Hans Knutson Tollefsrud 65 Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Jorand Olsdtr Ve 4 Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Ola Torson Ve Eidal 31 Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Ragnild Tolleivsdtr Froysok 30 Buskerud, Norway
Tolleiv Arneson Froysok 65 Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Halvor Embrickson Norway
Ågot Torgeirsdtr Norway
Asle Torset 6 Hemsedal, Hallingdal, Norway
Knut Asleson Norway
Ola Arneson Hoftun 12 Torpo, Aal, Hallingdal, Buskerud
Margit Steingrimsdatter Hersgard 5 Norway
Arnie Tollievson Froysok Hoftun 40 Norway
Kari Torsdatter Ve 29 Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Ola Jakobson Markegard Hemsedal, Buskerud, Norway
Guro Persdtr Devegge Rud 20 Hemsedal, Buskerud, Norway
Helge Larsson Aldahl 20 Voss, Evanger, Hordaland, Norway
Kari Botolosdtr Luren 25 Voss, Evanger, Hordaland, Norway
Gulleik Knutson Ovstedal 10 Norway
Knut Torkjelson Ovstedal 36 Norway
Guri Halvorsdtr Horvei 33 Norway
Gaute Halvorson N. Skogen-Rud Norway
Mari Andersdtr Norway
Jorgen Pedersen Holst-Haraldset 46 Nes, Buskerud, Norway

Everybody lived in Norway, but the Christianson  last name wasn’t around yet. Well, there may have been people with Christianson or Christiandtr in their middle names, but the last names they used were the names of the farms upon which they resided.

In 1670, our Christianson ancestors were found living in central Norway.

In 1670, Norway was united with Denmark, under Danish rule. The Lutheran church was the state religion. They were still using the Julian calendar, so the year started on March 15th.

Our Norwegian ancestors may have eaten lefse in 1670, but it wasn’t the lefse that we know and love today. The first potatoes weren’t introduced to Norway until the mid-1700s, so their lefse was not made of potatoes. Their lefse was just made with flour. And, it was not soft like ours. It was dried flat-bread. Women made lots of it and stored it on the shelf. When you wanted some, you dipped it in water before you ate it. Ours sounds much better!


We can identify 163 Estes ancestors living in 1670. John was the most common male name. Elizabeth and Mary were the most common female names.

Name Approximate Age Probable residence in 1670
Abraham Estes 23 Sandwich, Kent, England
James Chisholm 13 New Kent, Virginia
Anne Carter 13 Virginia
Thomas Bradley Virginia
John Girlington 36 Hornsby, Cumberland, England
Margaret Duckett 32 England
John Echols 20 Virginia
Mary Sarah Cave 10 Virginia
Richard Cave 56 Virginia
George McCall 8 Ireland
Martha Moore Ireland
John McCall 40 Ireland
Mary Smith Ireland
John Meadows 12 Essex Virginia
Awbrey Essex Virginia
David Holloway 6 Charles Parish, York, Virginia, USA
James Holloway 35 Charles Parish, York, Virginia, USA
Ann Charles Parish, York, Virginia, USA
John Matthews 20 Warwick, Virginia
Elizabeth Tavenor 20 Warwick, Virginia
John Mills 10 Essex Virginia
Robert Mills 30 Essex Virginia
Mary 30 Essex Virginia
John Mills 55 Virginia
Joan 55 Virginia
John Ireson 18 Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Richard Ireson 68 Lynn, Essex, Massachusetts
William Branson 25 Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Margaret Johnson 21 Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
John Day 5 Burlington County, New Jersey
Elizabeth Harvey 10 Burlington County, New Jersey
John Thomas Antrim 24 Burlington County, New Jersey
Frances Butcher 11 Biddlesden, Buckinghamshire, England
John Butcher 47 Biddlesden, Buckinghamshire, England
Anne 43 Biddlesden, Buckinghamshire, England
Daniel Zealy 14 England
Martha Eldridge 3 Driffield, Gloucestershire, England
John Sealy 40 England
Martha Beckett England
Thomas Eldridge Cirencester, Gloucestershire, England
Amy Cirencester, Gloucestershire, England
Samuel Vail 16 Southampton, Suffolk, New York, USA
Elizabeth 13 New Jersey
Thomas Vail 42 Southampton, Suffolk, New York, USA
Sarah Wentworth Southampton, Suffolk, New York, USA
Samuel Smith 26 Woodbridge, Middlesex, New Jersey, USA
Esther Dunham 11 Woodbridge, Middlesex, New Jersey, USA
John Smith 56 Woodbridge, Middlesex, New Jersey, USA
Susannah Hinckley 45 Woodbridge, Middlesex, New Jersey, USA
Jonathan Dunham 31 Woodbridge, Middlesex, New Jersey, USA
Mary Bloomfield 28 Woodbridge, Middlesex, New Jersey, USA
Richard Singletary 85 Haverhill, Essex, Massachusetts, USA
Susanna Cooke Haverhill, Essex, Massachusetts, USA
John Shotwell 20 Elizabeth, Union, New Jersey
Elizabeth Burton New York, USA
Abraham Shotwell 46 Elizabeth, Union, New Jersey
Edward Fitz Randolph 0 Barnstable, Barnstable, Massachusetts
Nathaniel Fitz Randolph 28 Barnstable, Barnstable, Massachusetts
Mary Holley Barnstable, Barnstable, Massachusetts
Edward Fitz Randolph 63 Piscataway, Middlesex, New Jersey
Elizabeth Blossom 50 Piscataway, Middlesex, New Jersey
Rose Allen Barnstable, Barnstable, Massachusetts
Willam Newland 65 Barnstable, Barnstable, Massachusetts
Richard Hartshorne 29 Middletown, Monmouth, New Jersey
Margaret Carr 16 Middletown, Monmouth, New Jersey
Robert Carr 56 Monmouth, New Jersey
William Webster 6 Scotland
Mary Unknown
John Cowperthwait Flushing, Queens, New York
Sarah Adams 2 Flushing, Queens, New York
Hugh Cowperthwait 22 Flushing, Queens, New York
Elizabeth Flushing, Queens, New York
John Adams 40 Flushing, Queens, New York
Elizabeth Flushing, Queens, New York
Ellen Newton 72 Plymouth County, Massachusetts, USA
Kenelm Winslow 71 Massachusetts
John Jackson 23 Hempstead, Nassau, New York (Long Island)
Elizabeth Seaman 17 Hempstead, Nassau, New York (Long Island)
Robert Jackson 50 Hempstead, Nassau, New York (Long Island)
Washburne 46 Hempstead, Nassau, New York (Long Island)
John Seaman Hempstead, Nassau, New York (Long Island)
William Hallett 22 Astoria, Queens, New York, USA (Hallet’s Cove)
Sarah Woolsey 20 Astoria, Queens, New York, USA (Hallet’s Cove)
William Hallett 54 Astoria, Queens, New York, USA (Hallet’s Cove)
Elizabeth Fones 60 Astoria, Queens, New York, USA (Hallet’s Cove)
George Woolsey 60 Jamaica, Queens, New York, USA
Rebecca Cornell 49 Jamaica, Queens, New York, USA
Rebecca Briggs 70 Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island, USA
Isaac Doty 21 Oyster Bay, Nassau, New York (Long Island)
Elizabeth England 17 Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island
Faith Clarke 52 Plymouth, Plymouth, Massachusetts
John Phillips 67 Plymouth, Plymouth, Massachusetts
Elizabeth 57 Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island, USA
Hugh Parsons 57 Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island, USA
Isaac Johnson 27 Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Mary Harris 19 Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Isaac Johnson 55 Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Elizabeth Porter 60 Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Grace Negus 67 Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Daniel Harris 44 Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Mary Weld 43 Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Samuel Partridge 25 Hatfield, Hampshire, Massachusetts
Mehitable Crow 18 Hatfield, Hampshire, Massachusetts
Mary Smith 45 Hartford, Hartford, Connecticut
John Crow 64 Hartford, Hartford, Connecticut
William Goodwin 79 Farmington, Hartford, Connecticut
Susanna Farmington, Hartford, Connecticut
Jonathan Gilbert 22 Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Dorothy Stow 11 Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Jonathan Gilbert 51 Hartford, Hartford, Connecticut
Mary Welles 44 Hartford, Hartford, Connecticut
John White Hartford, Hartford, Connecticut
Samuel Stow 47 Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Hope Fletcher 45 Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Daniel Harris 17 Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Abigail Barnes 14 Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Thomas Miller 61 Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Sarah Nettleton 26 Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Samuel Bow 11 Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Mary Turner 5 Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Alexander Bow Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Edward Turner 37 Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Mary Sanford 34 Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Edward Morris 12 Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Elizabeth Bowen 9 Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Edward Morris 40 Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Grace Bett Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Henry Bowen 37 Woodstock, Windham, Connecticu
Elizabeth Johnson 33 Woodstock, Windham, Connecticu
Jonathan Peake 7 Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Hannah Leavens 4 Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Jonathan Peake 33 Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Sarah French 32 Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Dorcas French Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
William French 67 Billerica, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Mary Lathrop 30 Billerica, Middlesex, Massachusetts
John Leavens 30 Massachusetts
Elizabeth Preston 15 Massachusetts
Thomas Brownell 20 Newport County, Rhode Island
Mary Pearce 16 Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island,
Richard Pearce 55 Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island,
Susannah Wright 43 Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island,
Jonathan Thurston 11 Newport, Newport, Rhode Island,
Sarah Rhode Island
Edward Thurston 53 Newport, Newport, Rhode Island,
Elizabeth Mott 41 Newport, Newport, Rhode Island,
John Bailey 17 Newport County, Rhode Island
Sutton 5 Newport County, Rhode Island
Grace Parsons 30 Rhode Island
John Graves Maine
Martha Mitton Maine
Elizabeth Cleaves Portland, Cumberland, Maine
John Borden 30 Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island,
Mary Earle 15 Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island,
Richard Borden 75 Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island,
Joan Fowle 66 Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island,
William Earle Dartmouth, Bristol, Massachusetts
Ralph Earle 64 Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island,
Joan Savage 74 Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island,
Job Briggs 22 Newport County, Rhode Island
Eleanor 18 Newport County, Rhode Island
John Briggs Sr 61 Newport County, Rhode Island
Sarah Cornell Newport County, Rhode Island

Looking at the map, it appears that the Estes family had already conquered most of the Eastern seaboard in the American Colonies. Family members could be found as far south as Virginia and as far north as Maine.

Estes ancestors in 1670.

There were also ancestors who still lived in Europe. Some were living in England and Ireland. Others were in what is now Germany. We can’t yet trace the Meyer and Stadler ancestors back any farther than the early 1800s, but their forebears were most likely living in Germany, possibly in the general areas that they emigrated from such as Hettingen, Neckar-Odenwald-Kreis, Baden-Württemberg, Germany (“near Trier, in the Renish province”); Obrigheim, Neckar-Odenwald-Kreis, Baden-Württemberg, Germany; and Mörtelstein, Neckar-Odenwald-Kreis, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

Colonial Estes, 1670.

Rhode Island

We had quite a few Estes ancestors living in Rhode Island in 1670. Although Massachusetts had originally been settled almost entirely by Puritans, later, only about a fifth of the people belonged to the Puritan church. But, since you could only vote or hold an office if you belonged to that church, most of the people in Massachusetts weren’t able to participate in the political life of the colony. A man named Roger Williams and others, led groups of discontented families southward into Rhode Island. In 1663, just seven years before the year we are studying, Rhode Island was given a liberal charter by Charles II, King of England. This let Rhode Island legally be established as a colony.

Our ancestor, Rebecca Briggs Cornell was a 70-years old widow, living in Portsmouth, Rhode Island with her son and his family. Things were probably not pleasant for her. She was born in England and had immigrated to Massachusetts with her husband when she was a young adult. Her husband prospered in the new world and amassed considerable property in New Amsterdam (New York) and in Rhode Island. When the Quaker movement hit the colonies, Rebecca became a follower. In 1670, she was living in Portsmouth with her son Thomas and his second wife. Times were challenging. There were fears that an attack on settlers by Native Americans was imminent. There were also fears that Rhode Island would be drawn into the war that England had declared on the Dutch. But the real danger to Rebecca was right in her own home. Rebecca and her son, Thomas had a contentious relationship. Thomas’s wife and Rebecca didn’t get along well either. This all came to a tragic conclusion in Feb 1672/73 (a couple years after the year we are studying) with Rebecca’s murder.¹


Maine was governed by Massachusetts in 1670. Our ancestor, Elizabeth Cleaves was living there and perhaps still mourning her parents, Joan Price and George Cleeve, who had both died a few years earlier. Her dad had been the the founder of Portland, Maine. But, in 1670, she was a child, still several years away from marrying John Graves, so we wonder who was taking care of her.


Virginia was the leader of the Southern Colonies, similar to how Massachusetts was the leader of New England. Agriculture was the primary industry, with tobacco being the most valuable crop. Large quantities of tobacco were shipped back to England and then distributed to Germany, Sweden, and other northern European countries. Labor to grow the demanding tobacco and rice crops, came largely through slavery, petty criminals from English jails, or indentured servants. People in Virginia generally lived on large plantations along the coast and along rivers, or on small farms in the interior. They were scattered and it was hard for people to get together very often. Each individual had to attend his own affairs without assistance from others. This applied to many things, including education. In 1671, Governor William Berkeley wrote that he, “thanked God there were no free schools in Virginia, and he hoped there would not be for a hundred years.” Education was the responsibility of the parents, not a duty of the state.

Religion didn’t control things in the south like it did in the north. In Virginia, you didn’t have to belong to a certain church in order to vote or hold office.

The Middle Colonies: New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania

Estes ancestors lived in New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Those colonies, with the addition of Delaware, made up what was called the Middle Colonies. These places were originally settled by the Dutch and the Swedes, though, the Dutch had since absorbed the Swedes. Then, in 1664, England had taken New Netherland from the Dutch. Taking over these colonies, gave the British some huge benefits: it connected New England to the Southern Colonies, gave them more harbors on the Atlantic coast, opened the fur trade to the west, and, because of the good relationships they developed with the Iroquois, stopped the French from moving south of the St. Lawrence River.

The Quaker movement was started in England in the 1600s by a man named George Fox. The Quakers had some wild ideas. Or, at least that is what organized religion of the day thought. The Quakers believed that God exists in every person. They didn’t have official pastors, so didn’t agree that taxes should go for paying one. They also thought that, spiritually, men and women were equal. Equality for women? – Blasphemy! The first Quaker missionaries came to the New World in the mid-1650s. They were not well received by the ruling powers in England or the Colonies. Massachusetts, for example, persecuted Quakers. Richard Hartshorne, one of our ancestors, is found in the Quaker Meeting minutes in New Jersey. He must have been a follower, as it seems that THE George Fox even stayed at Richard’s house.

Quaker Meeting Records, Richard Hartshorne.


Every one of our Krueger ancestors probably lived in what is now Germany or Poland in November 1870. But, the place wasn’t called Germany and it wasn’t called Poland then. Oh, and we don’t know any of the names of these ancestors.

In 1670, the area where our Krueger ancestors likely lived was not stable. Some of them probably lived in, what was then called, Brandenburg. Prussia and Brandenburg had recently joined forces and Prussia was expanding. Eventually Prussia took over, but that was long after 1670.² In 1674 and 1675, just a few years into the future for our 1670 ancestors, there was a Swedish invasion of Brandenburg. Who knew?

Most of the ancestors considered themselves from Pomerania once they got to Wisconsin (almost two centuries after 1670). The Encyclopedia Britannica gives us some insight to the history of Pomerania. It tells us that western and central Pomerania (including Stettin which is a familiar name to our ancestors) was ruled by Polish dukes until the 17th century. Then, in 1637, the area was acquired by Brandenburg when the last Polish duke died. Then in 1648, western Pomerania was handed over to Sweden. Hey, that could explain the Scandinavian DNA showing up in our guy who should have had an ethnicity estimate of 100% German.

Thus far, the Krueger family and all the assorted lines (think Aschbrenner, Fehlhaber, etc.) can only be traced back as far as the early 1800s. We can make some assumptions that, 130-years earlier, most of the ancestors were living in places like Cardemin, Stettin, Pommern, Germany; Lebbin, Kreis Greifenberg, Pommern, Preussen, Germany, Plathe (Piepenburg, Heidebreck), Pommern, Preußen, Gross Justin, Pommerania; Henchin Felde, Hamburg, Germany; Schleswig-Holstein, Germany; Tutzluf, Germany, Hansfelde, Posen, Prussia; Dobberphul, Pommern, Prussia; and Prossekel, Kreis Filehne, Posen, Prussia. But, we would just be making an educated guess.

In 1670, our Krueger ancestors were probably living in what is now northeastern Germany and northwestern Poland.



We know we had at least 184 Phillips ancestors living in November 1670. The most common male names were John and Johann. Anna, Mary, and Elizabeth were the most popular female names.

A disclaimer needs to be made that our 1670 German ancestors were found by another family historian who did research at the family history libraries in Salt Lake City and beyond. She transcribed German parish records and put together a tree. But, I have not had access to those records and have not personally verified the research. So, the “German” names in this list may be accurate, but are not considered 100% proven.

Name Approximate Age Probable residence in 1670
Joshua Holmes 35 Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Abigail Ingraham Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Robert Holmes Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Samuel Chesebrough 43 Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Samuel Frink 2 Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Ephraim Miner 28 Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Hannah Avery 26 Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Thomas Miner 62 Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Grace Palmer 62 Stonington, New London, Connecticut
James Avery 50 Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Joanna Greenslade 48 New London County, Connecticut
Isaac Wheeler 24 Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Martha Park 24 Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Thomas Wheeler 68 Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Mary Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Thomas Parke Sr 54 Preston City, New London, Connecticut
Dorothy Thompson 46 Preston City, New London, Connecticut
Jeremiah Shepard 22 Harvard College,Cambridge, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Mary Wainwright 13 Massachusetts
John Baldwin 35 New London, New London, Connecticut
Rebecca Palmer 23 Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Ebenezer Billings 9 New London County, Connecticut
Anna Comstock 9 Norwich, New London, Connecticut
Thomas Bennett 28 Fairfield, Fairfield, Connecticut
Elizabeth Thompson 26 Fairfield, Fairfield, Connecticut
Abraham Adams 20 Fairfield, Fairfield, Connecticut
Edward Adams 51 Fairfield, Fairfield, Connecticut
Mary Fairfield, Fairfield, Connecticut
Samuel Hickock 2 Farmington, Hartford, Connecticut
Elizabeth Plumb 1 Milford, New Haven, Connecticut
Samuel Hickock 27 Farmington, Hartford, Connecticut
Hannah Upson 22 Farmington, Hartford, Connecticut
John Plumbe 24 Milford, New Haven, Connecticut
Elizabeth Norton 25 Milford, New Haven, Connecticut
Mary Baldwin 44 Milford, New Haven, Connecticut
Dorothy Connecticut
Elizabeth Purcas County Essex, England
John Norton 48 Farmington, Hartford, Connecticut
Elizabeth Clark Farmington, Hartford, Connecticut
Jonathan Rockwell 5 Stamford, Fairfield, Connecticut
John Rockwell Jr. Stamford, Fairfield, Connecticut
John Rockwell Rye, Westchester, Connecticut
Elizabeth Weed 23 Rye, Westchester, Connecticut
Jonas Weed 60 Stamford, Fairfield, Connecticut
Mary Stamford, Fairfield, Connecticut
Samuel Camfield 25 New Haven, New Haven, Connecticut
Elizabeth Merwin 22 New Haven, New Haven, Connecticut
Matthew Camfield 66 Newark, Essex, New Jersey
Sarah Treat 50 Newark, Essex, New Jersey
Miles Merwin 47 Charlestown, Suffolk, Massachusetts
John Lovering 7 Dover, Strafford, New Hampshire
Hannah Kilham 6 Wenham, Essex, Massachusetts
Hester 47 Dover, Strafford, New Hampshire
Daniel Kilham 50 Wenham, Essex, Massachusetts
Mary Safford 40 Wenham, Essex, Massachusetts
Elizabeth Ipswich, Essex, Massachusetts
Nicholas Smith 9 Exeter, Rockingham, New Hampshire
Mary Gordon 2 Exeter, Rockingham, New Hampshire
Nicholas Smith 41 Exeter, Rockingham, New Hampshire
Mary Satchell Exeter, Rockingham, New Hampshire
Alexander Gordon 35 Exeter, Rockingham, New Hampshire
Mary Listen 31 Exeter, Rockingham, New Hampshire
Nicholas Listen Exeter, Rockingham, New Hampshire
Alice Exeter, Rockingham, New Hampshire
Benjamin Hall 2 Rehoboth, Bristol, Massachusetts
Sarah Fisher 2 Wrentham, Norfolk, Massachusetts
Edward Hall Rehoboth, Bristol, Massachusetts
Cornelius Fisher 38 Wrentham, Norfolk, Massachusetts
Sarah Everett 26 Wrentham, Norfolk, Massachusetts
Anthony Fisher 79 Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Richard Everett Dedham, Norfolk, Massachusetts
Mary Winch 51 Dedham, Norfolk, Massachusetts
Eliezer Fisher 7 Wrentham, Norfolk, Massachusetts
Hannah Leonard Wrentham, Norfolk, Massachusetts
Sarah Whitmore 12 Charlestown, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Samuel Frost 32 Billerica, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Edmund Frost 77 Cambridge, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Elizabeth Miller 21 Billerica, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Joseph Estabrook 1 Concord, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Hannah Leavitt 6 Hingham, Plymouth, Massachusetts
Joseph Estabrook 30 Concord, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Mary Mason 30 Concord, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Hugh Mason 65 Watertown, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Hester Wells 59 Watertown, Middlesex, Massachusetts
John Leavitt 62 Hingham, Plymouth, Massachusetts
Sarah Gilman 48 Hingham, Plymouth, Massachusetts
John Bacon 46 Dedham, Norfolk, Massachusetts
Rebecca Hall 38 Dedham, Norfolk, Massachusetts
Francis Hall 62 Stratford, Fairfield, Connecticut
John Loker 20 Sudbury, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Sarah Rice 15 Sudbury, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Mary Draper Sudbury, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Matthew Rice 40 Sudbury, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Martha Lamson 37 Sudbury, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Thomas Sawin 13 Middlesex, Massachusetts
Deborah Rice 11 Sudbury, Middlesex, Massachusetts
John Sawin 45 Middlesex, Massachusetts
Abigail Munnings 43 Middlesex, Massachusetts
George Lyon 8 Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Thankful Badcock 2 Milton, Norfolk, Massachusetts
George Lyon Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Hannah Tolman 28 Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Thomas Tolman Senior 62 Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Sarah 58 Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Robert Badcock Milton, Norfolk, Massachusetts
Joanna 41 Milton, Norfolk, Massachusetts
John Russell 3 Hatfield, Hampshire, Massachusetts
Martha Graves 3 Wethersfield, Hartford, Connecticut
Philip Russell 42 Hatfield, Hampshire, Massachusetts
Elizabeth Terry 28 Hatfield, Hampshire, Massachusetts
John Russell 73 Hadley, Hampshire, Massachusetts
Elizabeth Hadley, Hampshire, Massachusetts
Samuel Wolcott 14 Windsor, Hartford, Connecticut
Judith Appleton 17 Massachusetts
Henry Wolcott 60 Windsor, Hartford, Connecticut
Sarah Newberry 49 Windsor, Hartford, Connecticut
Samuel Appleton 46 Massachusetts
Nathaniel Collins 28 Connecticut
Mary Whiting 27 Connecticut
Edward Collins 67 Charlestown, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Martha 61 Charlestown, Suffolk, Massachusetts
George Wolcott 18 Connecticut
Elizabeth Curtis Connecticut
Johannas Stolp 4 Emmerichenhain, Germany
Christoffel Stalp 31 Emmerichenhain, Germany
Anna Catharina Schäfer 30 Emmerichenhain, Germany
Johann Schäfer 53 Prussia
Christianus Jung 20 Zehnhausen bei Rennerod, Germany
Anna Maria Diel 16 Zehnhausen bei Rennerod, Germany
Sebastiani Jung 55 Zehnhausen bei Rennerod, Germany
Kiniundta Stalp 40 Zehnhausen bei Rennerod, Germany
Johannes Diel 60 Zehnhausen bei Rennerod, Germany
Anna 50 Zehnhausen bei Rennerod, Germany
Sebastianus Spornhauer 14 Salzburg, Hessen-Nassau, Prussia
Anna Elisabetha Kopfer 10 Oberroßbach, Germany
Antony Spornhauer 50 Germany
Catharina 35 Germany
Gerlach Kopfer 35 Oberroßbach, Germany
Johann Christ Thiel 0 Rehe, Germany
Anna Gertruda Greb 0 Homberg, Germany
Christian Diel 30 Rehe, Germany
Anna Catharina Goebel 25 Rehe, Germany
Johannes Thiel 55 Rehe, Germany
Sophia Feiga 50 Rehe, Germany
Christian Goebel 58 Rehe, Germany
An Els 50 Rehe, Germany
Theis Greb 27 Homberg, Germany
Anna Elisabetha Sahm 20 Homberg, Germany
Johann Chrstopher Saam 65 Homberg, Germany
Johann Wilhelm Goebel 15 Rehe, Germany
Maria Elisabeth Thomas 10 Rehe, Germany
Clas Thomas 50 Rehe, Germany
Anna Catharina 25 Rehe, Germany
Johannes Kuntz 18 Zehnhausen bei Rennerod, Germany
Anna Maria Jung 9 Rehe, Germany
Johannes Jung 45 Rehe, Germany
Elsa 40 Rehe, Germany
Peter Thomas 5 Möhrendorf, Germany
Anna 0 Germany
Johann Jost Lautz Thomas 40 Germany
Anna Catharina 35 Germany
Hans Michel Hartmann 20 Rehe, Germany
Anna Catharina 20 Rehe, Germany
Best Jung 24 Zehnhausen bei Rennerod, Germany
Kiniundta 20 Zehnhausen bei Rennerod, Germany
Johann Georg Stahl 21 Emmerichenhain, Germany
Anna Elisabeth Müller 17 Emmerichenhain, Germany
Johann Wilhelm Stahl 50 Emmerichenhain, Germany
Maria Elisabetha Brecher 50 Emmerichenhain, Germany
Jacob Müller 42 Emmerichenhain, Germany
Catharina Türk 45 Emmerichenhain, Germany
Johann Thonges Stahl 15 Emmerichenhain, Germany
Ann Els 0 Emmerichenhain, Germany
Johannes Haas 20 Emmerichenhain, Germany
Anna Maria Saam 16 Emmerichenhain, Germany
Jacob Haas 45 Germany
Anna Maria 40 Germany
Johann Christopher Saam 65 Germany
Anna Elisabeth 50 Germany
Henrich Müller 13 Emmerichenhain, Germany
Elisabetha Claus 9 Germany
Johann Weigand Claus 40 Germany
Hermann Jung 10 Driedorf, Germany
Rebecca Short 60 Stonington, New London, Connecticut

In 1670, our Phillips ancestors were found in New England and Europe.


Colonial Phillips, 1670.


Connecticut, where many of our Phillips and Estes ancestors lived, had been given its charter from King Charles II in 1662. Settlement in Connecticut wasn’t about religion or politics like it had been for Rhode Island. It was about wanting more land. Way back in 1636, the pastor of the church of Newtown, Massachusetts led his congregation to Hartford, on the Connecticut River, to form a new settlement. Other emigrants quickly followed and by the end of 1636, there were nearly a thousand English inhabitants in the Connecticut River valley.

Many of the Phillips ancestors who lived in the colonies in November 1670 were prominent in their communities. There was even a note about Francis Hall in the Fairfield County records.

Francis Hall, Fairfield County, Connecticut, November 1670.

New Hampshire

In 1670, New Hampshire was still controlled by Massachusetts. It wasn’t until 1679, seven years after the year we are studying, that King Charles II separated New Hampshire from Massachusetts and issued a charter for the royal Province of New Hampshire.

But, our ancestors were there already. Nicholas Listen, for example, lived at Exeter and was tasked with being a member of a committee to lay out town boundaries between Exeter and neighboring towns. The History of the town of Exeter, New Hampshire explained how difficult it was to get the job done.

History of the town of Exeter, New Hampshire, p. 118. (Archive.org)

History of the town of Exeter, New Hampshire, p. 119. {Archive.org)

The End

Writing this, I’ve been able to visit some ancestors who haven’t had attention in many years. It was really hard to not stop and do research on each and every one of them, because I suspect I would have found interesting things and found corrections to make to the family tree. But, had I let myself get distracted, this wouldn’t be posted for years. I ran out of time as it is. This has been a challenging exercise, but it has given me greater perspective into our families and the world in 1670. I’ve learned quite a few things. Hopefully, you will find the random tidbits of information that I shared here interesting too. (Next time we won’t be traveling quite so far back in time…)

Notes and Selected Sources:

¹ Elaine Forman Crane, Killed strangely: the death of Rebecca Cornell (New York: Cornell University Press, 2002)

² Two YouTube videos are available to visually show the changing borders. See Brandenburg and Prussia (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ScqfgwAZhGc) and History of Prussia (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=az-d0cWrbJM).

“1661 to 1670,” Macrohistory and World Timeline, Web, 9 Nov 2017, http://www.fsmitha.com/time/ce17-7.htm.

Ancestry.com, U.S., Quaker Meeting Records, 1681-1935 (Provo, UT, USA, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2014), Ancestry.com, Swarthmore College; Swarthmore, Pennsylvania; Records of Marriages, 1674-1853, Births 1641-1869, Deaths, 1666-1876; Collection: Quaker Meeting Records; Call Number: MR Ph:585. Record for Richard Hartshorne.

Charles Henry Bell, History of the town of Exeter, New Hampshire, (Exeter, NH, 1888), pp. 118-9. Archive.Org, Web, 12 Nov 2017, https://archive.org/details/historyoftownofe00bell.

“Combined: 1500 to 1700,” History of the World, Web, 9 Nov 2017, http://www.lukemastin.com/history/by_date_4.html.

Eugene C. Barker, Walter P. Webb, and William E. Dodd, The Growth of a Nation (Evanston, Illinois: Row, Peterson and Company, 1937)

“History of Norway,” History World, Web, 2 Nov 2017, http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ac73.

“History of Quakerism,” History, Web, 12 Nov 2017, http://www.history.com/topics/history-of-quakerism.

James Hammond Trumbull, The public records of the colony of Connecticut from 1636-1776 (Hartford: Press of the Case : Lockwood & Brainard Company, 1850) Archive Org, Web, 2017, https://archive.org/details/publicrecords02conn, p. 148.

Jayaram V, “Your Ancestors For 50 Generations,” Hinduwebsite.com, Web, 2 Nov 2017, http://www.hinduwebsite.com/general/geneologycalc.asp.

Ken Polsson, “1670,” Chronology of World History, 2007-2017, Web, 9 Nov 2017, http://worldtimeline.info/wor1670.htm.

“Lefse History,” Lefse Time, Web, 12 Nov 2017, https://www.lefsetime.com/lefse-history/.

“Norway Timeline,” Family Search, Web, 2 Nov 2017, https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/Norway_Timeline.

“Pomerania,” Encyclopedia Britannica, Web, 12 Nov 2017, https://www.britannica.com/place/Pomerania.

“Right on Lefse,” My Little Norway, Web, 12 Nov 2017, http://mylittlenorway.com/2009/07/right-on-lefse/.

Rod Phillips, Alcohol: A History, (Chapel Hill: UNC Press Books, 2014), Google Books (https://books.google.com/books?id=r1g7BAAAQBAJ : accessed 9 Nov 2017)

“The Middle Colonies,” U.S. History, Web, 12 Nov 2017, http://www.ushistory.org/us/4b.asp.

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